The first step in developing a capital budget is to plan. This includes setting a calendar (much like the one for the annual budget); creating an inventory of equipment, buildings, and facilities; assessing the status of current large projects, including funding and targeted completion dates; identifying future needs; and finally prioritizing the items. All departments need to be involved in this process.
The next step is to look at finances. Assess and establish your financing options (Can we pay for this in cash if we set aside $10,000 each year for five years? Is lease/purchase a better option? What about issuing a bond for the new public works garage?); determine financial limits (How much will we have to work within two years?); and determine your current debt obligations (We owe $20,000 on this loan and will have it paid off in the middle of next year).
The last stage of the capital budgeting process is implementation. The CIP is normally approved by resolution, with the first year of the program (the capital budget) adopted as a separate section in the annual budget. As mentioned earlier, once the program has been adopted and firms are hired, land is purchased, and construction begins, close scrutiny of these large and expensive projects will save you a lot of headaches and, potentially, bad publicity in the future.