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A primer on energy efficiency for municipal water and wastewater utilities

This primer is concerned with energy use and efficiency of network-based water supply and wastewater treatment in urban areas. It focuses on the supply side of the municipal water cycle, including the extraction, treatment, and distribution of water, and collection and treatment of wastewater-activities which are directly managed by water and wastewater utilities (WWUs). Improving energy efficiency (EE) is at the core of measures to reduce operational cost at WWUs. Since energy represents the largest controllable operational expenditure of most WWUs, and many EE measures have a payback period of less than five years, investing in EE supports quicker and greater expansion of clean water access for the poor by making the system cheaper to operate.
Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
February 2012.